EPA Approved Cleaning Products, A More or Less Severe Virus Strain (Lecture 31)
Welcome to another MedCram covid-19 update. Total confirmed cases 96,000; total deaths 3300; total recovered 53,000. Going over to the worldodometer site, total cases were leveling off. Now they are starting to pick up. We are definitely in the epidemic phase here outside of China.
欢迎来到MedCram covid-19的另一个更新。确诊病例总数96,000；总死亡3300; 康复53,000。转到worldodometer 站点，总病例数之前趋于平稳。现在他们开始回升了。我们肯定在中国以外的地方处于流行阶段。
I like to go to the worldometer for the latest updates, which is on the homepage. You can see here for March 5th, and of course, the day is not done, just beginning. 2 new cases here in the United States; 4 new cases in Thailand; 145 new cases in South Korea. They are testing aggressively in South Korea as you can see.
If you look at the completed day for yesterday, you will see two new deaths in the United States and 34 new cases here as well. The west coast is the place where the epidemic is occurring most. We have 12 new cases in Washington state and 12 new cases in California.
587 new cases in just one day in Italy, with 28 new deaths. If we look at the worldwide close cases, we can see that the death rate is still falling as the virus progresses. The death rate falling under 6%; we know that the WHO yesterday declared that the worldwide estimated case fatality rate is somewhere at the three percent range. They had previously set around 2%.
Looking at active cases that are going on right now. There are about 38,000, of those 32,000 are in mild condition; probably they don’t even need to be in the hospital. 17% are in serious or critical condition; these are people in the hospital or even in the Intensive Care Unit.
This is a list that the EPA has put together of registered antimicrobial products for use against coronavirus, SARS-COV-2, the cause of covid-19. This is what we’ve been waiting for. It was put out on March 3rd. I will put the link to this in the description below.
You can see that bleach and peroxide and certain chemicals here. RTU, by the way, is ready to use. DELUTAB is something that you can dilute. But you can see here, there are a number of products that are certified to clean and disinfect surfaces that are colonized by the SARS-COV-2 virus.
I want to talk about this interesting research article. The research was done by experts at Peking University in Beijing, Shanghai University, and the Chinese Academy of Sciences. The gist of the article is we have the SARS-COV-2 virus, and what they’re saying is that there are two types. There is an ancestral S-Type, which was starting before or at the very beginning of the outbreak, and there’s been a mutation that’s branched off. The original is known as the S form, and the mutated form is known as the L form.
How they differ is that at a single point where there’s been a mutation of one nucleotide that’s known as an SNP, a single nucleotide polymorphism. For instance, in the genome, instead of having AGT, which would be in the S-Type, the mutated L version, the one that’s branched off, is going to be AGC. At that point, there’s been a change of a nucleotide, and that’s caused a difference.
This L and the S form, the S being less severe, but the more original form was seen only 30% of the time in Wuhan, the more severe one, and the people up in the hospital and they were quarantined, that’s been reduced, and it’s been decreasing whereas the 30% one is the one that seems to be spreading.
Let’s take a look at some of their data in that article. Here is the article itself. I will put a link in the description below. Here’s a Fulani tree where you can see that the red arrow is the S and the blue arrow the L.
There’s also further analysis. Again, the red dots being the S version, and the blue dots being the descendants or the more severe one. Here you can see the two L&S types, and you can see that there is a transition there, where the S-Type seems to be more similar to the other coronaviruses, with a T at this position in this gene changed to a C, and that became more virulent in the L Type, which is the blue one.
You can also see where this went. For instance, you can see here there’s a strain that went to France, Germany. There are some that have gone to South Korea, the United States, Singapore Japan. But some of the S-Type have also gone to the United States, to Australia, to Korea, Japan, etc. Etc.
In terms of the number of strains, looking at this first part of the graph. Outside of Wuhan, there was a lot more of the S-Type, whereas inside Wuhan there was a much, much higher concentration of the newer L-type, which was also more severe.
Look at the second part of the graph, before January 7 verses after January 7, the S-Type was making much more of a comeback. Unfortunately, you can’t really choose what form of the virus you get infected with. According to the authors of the study, you may actually get both. Apparently the virus has identified from a patient in Australia had multiple degenerated nucleotides. And the best explanation is that this patient was infected by at least two different strains of SARS-COV-2 viruses. You can see here that looking at the two nucleotides at these positions, they were different even though this was in the same person.
Of course, the other possibilities that the patient may have had mutated virus in them at the same time, which is unlikely. The authors and their abstract saying that these findings strongly support an urgent need for further, immediate, comprehensive studies that combine genomic data, epidemiological data, and chart records of the clinical symptoms of patients with covid-19. Thanks for joining.