新冠病毒感染人体细胞的分子生物学原理,锌能否帮助预防COVID-19

Important Data from South Korea, Can Zinc Help Prevent COVID-19 (Lecture 32)

Welcome to another MedCram covid-19 update. This is for March 6, 2020. Total confirmed cases now over 100,000. Other than mainland China, South Korea has the most confirmed infections because it’s well known that they’re doing aggressive testing.

欢迎来到MedCram covid-19的另一个更新。这是2020年3月6日。目前已确认的病例总数超过100,000。除了中国大陆以外,韩国确诊率最高,因为众所周知,他们正在进行积极的检测。

There’s an article in the Business Insider that goes over that. It says South Korea has tested 140,000 people now. If you think about that, they’ve tested more people inside their country than we have confirmed cases in the world. That could explain why it’s death rate is just 0.6%, far lower than in China or in the United States.

Business Insider中有一篇文章介绍了这一点。据说韩国现在已经测试了14万人。如果考虑到这一点,他们对本国内部人员的测试比我们在世界各地确认的病例要多。这可以解释为什么它的死亡率仅为0.6%,远低于中国或美国。

There’s a nice article here from Bloomberg talking about the virus testing Blitz. What’s interesting about this testing in South Korea is that these test kits that they’re using are a little bit different than the ones that we have, and their sensitivity rates are well over 95 percent according to the director of the Korean Society for laboratory medicine.

彭博社(Bloomberg)上有一篇不错的文章谈论病毒测试Blitz。在韩国进行这项测试的有趣之处在于,他们使用的这些测试套件与我们所使用的测试套件有些不同,据韩国检验医学会理事长称,它们的灵敏度高达95%以上。

What does that mean? Again? South Korea has tested more than 140,000 people for the new coronavirus and has confirmed more than 6,000 cases. And that is a fatality rate at around 0.6%. This suggests that, as many health experts have predicted, the virus’s fatality rate seems to decrease as more cases are reported. This just mathematics, right? As the denominator of a fraction increases, the value of that ratio drops.

这意味着什么?再次?韩国已经对超过14万人进行了新的冠状病毒测试,并确认了6,000多例。死亡率是0.6%左右。这表明,正如许多健康专家所预测的那样,随着更多病例的报道,病毒的致死率似乎正在下降。这只是数学,对不对?随着分数的分母增加,该比率的值下降。

In the US, by contrast, we’ve only tested about 1,500 people, and there have been 221 confirmed cases and 12 deaths, suggesting a death rate of 5%. Of course, we know that there’s a number of people out there that are positive for coronavirus that we just haven’t picked up. That’s because our testing capacity has been limited, and that’s been reported because our CDC decided to go along with a different test kit, which was flawed in many ways, and that has caused the delay.

相比之下,在美国,我们仅对大约1,500人进行了检测,确诊病例221例,死亡12例,表明死亡率为5%。当然,我们知道有很多人对我们尚未发现的冠状病毒呈阳性反应。那是因为我们的测试能力有限,并且有报道称这是因为我们的CDC决定采用另一种测试工具包,该工具包在很多方面都存在缺陷,并导致了延迟。

The good news though is that a lot of testing is going to be coming online in the next couple of weeks, and we should see the number of cases going up. Yes, but it should show that mathematically that the fatality rate should also drop.

好消息是,在接下来的几周内,将有很多测试即将上线,我们应该看到案例数量有所增加。是的,但是应该从数学上表明死亡率也应该下降。

I think right now as of March 6th, the best example that we have how this virus is behaving is South Korea because they’ve done aggressive testing, and they have a relatively modern healthcare delivery system very similar to that here in the United States. I will put the links to these articles in the description below.

我认为,截至3月6日,我们已经知道这种病毒的表现的最好的例子是韩国,因为它们已经进行了积极的测试,而且它们具有相对较现代的医疗保健提供系统,与美国在此系统非常相似。我将在下面的描述中放置这些文章的链接。

So I’ve got a lot of requests out there to talk about the new medication that’s undergoing trials like remdesivir, also vitamin supplements and, for instance, zinc, which we’ll talk about shortly.

因此,我有很多要求谈论正在接受试验的新药物,如瑞德西韦,维生素补充剂和锌,我们将很快讨论锌。

To be able to understand how all of these things are affecting how the virus infects or replicates in the body, you’re going to have to have some basic understanding of molecular biology. So bear with me over the next 10 to 15 minutes as we talk about the pathophysiology and the molecular biology of how coronavirus infects human cells.

为了能够理解所有这些因素如何影响病毒在人体中的感染或复制,您将需要对分子生物学有一些基本的了解。因此,在接下来的10至15分钟内,请与我一起讨论冠状病毒如何感染人类细胞的病理生理学和分子生物学。

Now in terms of nomenclature,  remember that coronavirus is a family of viruses, and that family of viruses belong to a bigger group of viruses called nidovirales. So you might see that term as well.

现在就术语而言,请记住冠状病毒是病毒家族的一个成员,并且该病毒家族属于称为nidovirales的更大病毒组。因此,您可能也会看到该术语。

I’m going to walk you through now exactly what happens with covid-19 infection by the SARS-COV-2 virus. We’ve got a cell. This side is the inside of the cell, and this is outside, and here we have the nucleus. This is called the cytoplasm.

现在,我将向您详细介绍SARS-COV-2病毒对covid-19的感染。我们有一个细胞。这一侧是细胞的内部,这是外部的,在这里我们有细胞核,这称为细胞质。

The nucleus has a double-stranded set of DNA, which is deoxyribonucleic acid. This holds all of the instructions for all of the proteins and structures and things in the cell. This is in fact, the organism’s genome.

核具有双链DNA,即脱氧核糖核酸。这包含了细胞中所有蛋白质,结构和事物的所有说明。这实际上是生物体的基因组。

Now what occurs next is something called transcription. Transcription is the copying of that DNA code into a single stranded RNA code. Again, that’s known as transcription.

现在,接下来发生的事情叫做转录。转录是将DNA编码复制为单链RNA编码。同样,这被称为转录。

Now that RNA molecule leaves the nucleus and goes into the cytoplasm where it has special modification that is made to it, and this special modification tells the cell that it’s ready to be translated into a protein, and that is something called a five prime cap and a poly A tail. In other words, a lot of A’s at the end.

现在,RNA分子离开细胞核进入细胞质,对其进行了特殊的修饰,这种特殊的修饰告诉细胞它已准备好被翻译成蛋白质,这就是所谓的五素帽和聚A尾巴。换句话说,结尾处有很多A。

Now when that occurs, there’s something called ribosomes. There’s a large subunit ribosome and a small subunit ribosome, and that ribosome reads the code as it goes down from the 5 prime end to the 3 prime end.

现在,当这种情况发生时,有一种叫做核糖体的东西。有一个大的亚基核糖体和一个小的亚基核糖体,当核糖体从5个主要末端下降到3个主要末端时,它会读取代码。

As it reads the nucleotides three at a time, it comes up with a code that when those three letters are lined up, it means that there’s a specific amino acid that has to be placed on there, and that uses tRNA, etc, etc.

当它一次读取三个核苷酸时,会产生一个代码,当这三个字母排列在一起时,这意味着必须在其中放置特定的氨基酸,并使用tRNA等。

But the byproduct of that is you get a protein coming out of the ribosome. And of course, this protein is not made up of nucleotides. This protein is made up of amino acids. So this is a protein, and this is called translation.

但是,这样做的副产品是您从核糖体中得到一种蛋白质。当然,这种蛋白质不是由核苷酸组成。该蛋白质由氨基酸组成。因此,这是一种蛋白质,称为翻译。

That’s the difference between transcription, which is going from a nucleotide to a nucleotide. Translation is when you go from a nucleotide to amino acids to make a protein, and this is really what everything is made up of is protein.

那是转录之间的区别,转录是从一个核苷酸到一个核苷酸。翻译是指从核苷酸到氨基酸来合成蛋白质的过程,而这实际上就是蛋白质的全部成分。

Proteins have different structures; proteins can be made into enzymes; proteins could be made into all sorts of things in the cell, and that is what the cell does, and the codes for all of these proteins are included in the DNA. So this is really the central dogma of molecular biology.

蛋白质具有不同的结构;蛋白质可以制成酶;蛋白质可以在细胞中制成各种各样的东西,这就是细胞的作用,而所有这些蛋白质的代码都包含在DNA中。因此,这确实是分子生物学的核心内容。

So now let’s bring in the viron. I’m drawing lines here, but you should be aware that the outside of this cell is something called a lipid bilayer. Actually the nucleus is a double layer of a bilayer, which we don’t have to worry about. but if you were to look at this very carefully, there would be a hydrophilic layer on the bottom and the top, and in the middle it would be lipophilic. So it’s known as a lipid bilayer.

现在让我们带上病毒颗粒。我在这里画线,但是您应该知道,该单元的外部是称为脂质双层的。实际上,原子核是双层。但是如果您仔细观察一下,底部和顶部会有一层亲水层,而中间则是亲脂性的。因此,它被称为脂质双层。

Well, guess what? This virus also is made up of a lipid bilayer, and it has a hydrophilic side on the outside, and it has a lipophilic on the inside. So it looks very similar. This is the reason why you can destroy viruses with detergents. Detergents can break that up.

好吧,你猜怎么着?这个病毒也由脂质双层构成,在外部具有亲水性,在内部具有亲脂性。因此,它看起来非常相似。这就是为什么您可以使用清洁剂销毁病毒的原因。洗涤剂可以将其分解。

This virus has proteins. Specifically, we’ll talk about the coronavirus since that’s what we are concerned about. There are proteins that are embedded in this lipid bilayer, and this protein that I’m drawing here right now is called the S protein. It goes all the way through the lipid membrane.

该病毒含有蛋白质。具体来说,我们将讨论冠状病毒,因为这是我们所关注的。在脂双层中嵌入了蛋白质,我现在在这里绘制的这种蛋白质称为S蛋白。它一直贯穿脂质膜。

Now, there are other proteins in there. For instance, there are M proteins. There are also E proteins. They all have their specific function, or structure, to keep this virus intact. Then what is inside is the genome. It’s a tightly packed, very large RNA genome, and it’s bound with N proteins.  There are N proteins all through here binding the RNA molecule.

现在,那里还有其他蛋白质。例如,有M蛋白质。也有E蛋白。它们都有自己的特定功能或结构,可以使该病毒保持完整。然后里面是基因组。它是一个紧密包装的非常大的RNA基因组,并且与N种蛋白质结合在一起。这里共有N种蛋白质结合RNA分子。

So you’ve got S proteins that help bind at the end here; they are going to dock with cells. You have E protein which is a membrane inside of the bilipid membrane layer. You have an M protein, which is a protein also in the membrane. You have N proteins, which help bind it. All of these are proteins that have to be coded by something. Then, of course, you have the RNA. That’s key here is understanding that coronavirus is an RNA virus.

因此,您在此处最后具有有助于结合的S蛋白。他们将与细胞对接。您有E蛋白,它是胆汁膜层内部的膜。您有一个M蛋白,该蛋白也在膜中。您拥有N种蛋白质,可帮助其结合。所有这些都是必须由某种东西编码的蛋白质。然后,当然,您有了RNA。这里的关键是要了解冠状病毒是一种RNA病毒。

In this situation, we have a receptor on the surface of the human cell. Here, which is known as the ACE2 receptor, or ACE2 protein. This S protein fits perfectly into that ACE2 and binds to it. When one of these comes and binds, what you get at that point look something similar to this. You can see here that all of the viral contents come into the cytoplasm.

在这种情况下,我们在人类细胞的表面有一个受体。在这里,称为ACE2受体或ACE2蛋白。该S蛋白非常适合该ACE2并与其结合。当其中之一进入并绑定时,此时您得到的结果与此类似。您可以在此处看到所有病毒内容物都进入细胞质。

let’s redraw this RNA molecule from the virus, and you’ll start to see something very astounding. That’s right. It’s an RNA, and it has a five prime cap; it has a poly A tail, just exactly as we have our messenger RNA ready for translation.

让我们从病毒中重新提取该RNA分子,您会开始发现一些令人吃惊的东西。那就对了。它是一个RNA,有五个主要上限;它有一个poly A尾巴,就像我们已经准备好翻译我们的信使RNA一样。

Also notice that the cell incorporates the viral envelope as part of its outer membrane. As a result of that, these S proteins that were there initially now become part of the cellular membrane, marking it potentially for cellular destruction.

另请注意,该细胞将病毒包膜作为其外膜的一部分。结果,这些最初存在的S蛋白现在成为细胞膜的一部分,潜在地标志着其被细胞破坏。

Meanwhile, our ribosomes jump right on to this viral genome and start to march down the RNA. This is what’s known as a positive sense RNA. What does that mean? That means that when the ribosomes come onto this RNA, and they start to go from the five prime down to the three prime end, it’s going to make a protein, and the protein that it makes is something called an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase.

同时,我们的核糖体立即跳入该病毒基因组,并开始向RNA前进。这就是所谓的正向RNA。这意味着什么?这意味着,当核糖体进入这个RNA,并且从五个末端开始下降到三个末端时,它将制造出一种蛋白质,而这种蛋白质被称为RNA依赖性RNA聚合酶。

So here it starts to make this protein, and there it is. That’s abbreviated RNA-dependent RNA polymerase; otherwise known as a replicase. What this means is that this protein that is coded for by this mRNA will now take this positive-stranded RNA. It’s only one stand. It will now march from the other ends because it reads from the three prime ends.

因此,在这里它开始制造这种蛋白质,而且确实存在。缩写为RNA依赖性RNA聚合酶。否则称为复制酶。这意味着该mRNA编码的这种蛋白质现在将采用这种正链RNA。只有一串。现在它将从另一端进军,因为它从三个主要端读取。

It will start to march in this direction, going along the RNA and make another RNA that is complementary to the previous one here. This will be the 5 prime end. This will be the three prime end. Of course, this is going to be complementary to the original, so this will be a negative-stranded RNA.

它会开始朝这个方向前进,沿着RNA前进,并形成另一个与此处先前的RNA互补的RNA。这将是5个主要目标。这将是三个主要目标。当然,这将与原始序列互补,因此这将是负链RNA。

But guess what? This RDRP is then going to come on to this one and start over on this side, and it’s going to read down this way. The product of that is going to be the original viral genome. So you can see here that this RNA replicase is going to be making more and more RNAs so that they can package these into new virulence that this cell is going to be making. So it can make more virus.

但猜猜怎么了?然后,此RDRP将进入这一阶段并从这一侧重新开始,并且将以这种方式进行阅读。该产品将成为原始病毒基因组。因此,您可以在这里看到这种RNA复制酶将产生越来越多的RNA,以便它们可以将它们包装成该细胞即将产生的新毒力。因此它可以制造更多病毒。

Now the part that really blows me away when this RNA-dependent RNA polymerase starts to go back on again, and it starts to do this, sometimes it doesn’t reach right at the end. Sometimes it reaches from here and will only copy this part, and so you’ll get a shorter RNA, or it’ll come from this side here and I’ll get a shorter RNA.

现在,当这种依赖于RNA的RNA聚合酶再次开始起作用时,确实让我震惊的部分,并且它开始执行此操作,有时直到最后才到达目的地。有时它从这里到达,只会复制这部分,所以您会得到一个较短的RNA,或者它会从这里这边过来,而我会得到一个较短的RNA。

Well, when you get these shorter RNAs, these are known as subgenomic RNAs, or SGRNAs, and some of them are positive and of course; some of them are going to be negative because they’re complementary.

好吧,当您获得这些较短的RNA时,它们被称为亚基因组RNA或SGRNA,其中一些是阳性的,当然;其中一些将是消极的,因为它们是互补的。

This viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase will just make more SGRNAs or negative-SGRNAs. Guess what? These smaller ones also code for the smaller proteins on the virus. So all of these RNAs can be seen and read by ribosomes that the host is donating to the cause. See it hijacks your cell, and so these smaller proteins can be, for instance, M proteins which the virus needs to be made for it. It can also be E proteins.

这种依赖病毒RNA的RNA聚合酶只会产生更多的SGRNA或阴性SGRNA。你猜怎么了?这些较小的也编码病毒上较小的蛋白质。因此,所有这些RNA都可以被宿主捐赠给核糖体的核糖体看到和读取。看到它劫持了您的细胞,因此这些较小的蛋白质可以是例如需要为其制造病毒的M蛋白。它也可以是E蛋白。

So the virus comes into the cell, and the key here that you have to understand is it gives up its RNA into the cell, and it’s ready-made for the ribosomes of the cell to make this protein right here called RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. Anything that ends in an ACE is an enzyme, and it tells you what it does. It’s an RNA-dependent, which means it reads RNA, and it makes more RNA. That’s what a polymerase is.

因此,病毒进入了细胞,在这里您必须了解的关键是它会将其RNA释放到细胞中,并且已经为细胞的核糖体做好了准备,可以在此处制造这种蛋白,称为RNA依赖性RNA聚合酶。 以ACE结尾的任何东西都是酶,它告诉您它的作用。它是RNA依赖性的,这意味着它可以读取RNA,并且可以产生更多的RNA。那就是聚合酶。

It puts a little nucleotides together into a long chain with little beads. That information helps tell the ribosomes instead of making the proteins that your cell needs to make, it makes the protein that the virus wants to make, and it does it in this very clever way.

它会将一些核苷酸与一条带有小珠的长链放在一起。这些信息有助于告诉核糖体,而不是制造细胞需要制造的蛋白质,而是制造病毒想要制造的蛋白质,并且以非常聪明的方式来制造。

So the question is, how can we interrupt this? Because what happens after this is some of these ribosomes are floating around in the cytoplasm, but some of these ribosomes are actually attached to a membrane, which is contiguous with this outer membrane. So they can insert all of those proteins just like they want, and then the reverse of what happened here at the beginning occurs where these things butt off, and little viruses get packaged and they go off. That’s how one viron is able to go into one human being, and millions and millions of viruses come out.

所以问题是,我们怎样才能打断呢?因为在此之后发生的是这些核糖体中的一些在细胞质中漂浮,但是其中一些核糖体实际上附着在与该外膜相邻的膜上。因此,他们可以按照自己的意愿插入所有这些蛋白质,然后在开始时发生的相反情况是这些东西碰到一起,很少的病毒被包装起来,然后就消失了。这样一来,一种病毒就可以进入一个人体内,从而产生数百万种病毒。

It’s because it hijacks the molecular biology of the cells, and it happens to be that these ACE2 receptors are generally speaking in the lower portion of your respiratory tract. With all of these cellular outer membranes, with all of these foreign proteins,  the immune system is going to start attacking these cells. That’s what happens with these lower respiratory cells; they become inflamed; they leak fluid. That’s what causes pneumonia and respiratory failure.

这是因为它劫持了细胞的分子生物学,并且碰巧这些ACE2受体通常在呼吸道的下部。由于所有这些细胞外膜以及所有这些外来蛋白质,免疫系统将开始攻击这些细胞。这些下呼吸道细胞就是这种情况。他们发炎;他们泄漏液体。这就是导致肺炎和呼吸衰竭的原因。

Let’s think about this. What would happen if we could somehow inhibit this nasty enzyme called RNA-dependent RNA polymerase? Well, as it turns out there is something that can be done. There was some in vitro; in vitro means in a Petri dish experiment that was done, that showed that the molecule zinc was able to inhibit this RNA-dependent RNA polymerase.

让我们考虑一下。如果我们能以某种方式抑制这种令人讨厌的酶,即RNA依赖性RNA聚合酶,将会发生什么? 好吧,事实证明,有些事情可以做。有一些体外实验;在皮氏培养皿实验中进行的体外实验表明,锌分子能够抑制这种依赖RNA的RNA聚合酶。

But how did they get the zinc into the cell? They did it through a little pour-on that allowed zinc to come into the cell in higher concentrations than it would normally have done. So how did that work? Let’s take a look at it and see what happened in that situation.

但是他们是如何将锌带入细胞的呢?他们通过一点点倾泻来做到这一点,使锌以比通常更高的浓度进入细胞。那是怎么工作的呢?让我们看看它,看看在这种情况下发生了什么。

So here’s an article that was published in 2010. Zinc Inhibits Coronavirus and Arterial Virus RNA Polymerase Activity in vitro and Zinc Ionophores Block the Replication of These Viruses in Cell Culture.

因此,这是一篇发表于2010年的文章。《锌在体外抑制冠状病毒和动脉病毒RNA聚合酶的活性,锌离子载体阻止这些病毒在细胞培养中的复制》。

So here’s that enzyme we were talking about, RNA polymerase, that nasty enzyme that is coded for by the RNA genome that goes directly into the cell. So let’s look at this abstract. It talks about using something called PT, which is a zinc ionophore that allows zinc to come into the cell in higher concentrations.

因此,这就是我们正在谈论的酶,RNA聚合酶,这种讨厌的酶由直接进入细胞的RNA基因组编码。因此,让我们看一下这个摘要。它谈到使用一种叫做PT的东西,这是一种锌离子载体,可以使锌以更高的浓度进入细胞。

They also used the actual virus SARS-COV, which is not covid-19 virus, but in fact the one that was seen in 2002. But it is very closely related to the virus that we’re seeing today and also binds to the same receptor ACE2. It did show that zinc was found to block the initiation step of RNA synthesis. They found for the SARS-cov that RDRP elongation, that’s the RNdR polymerase elongation, was inhibited, and template binding was reduced.

他们还使用了实际的SARS-COV病毒,它不是covid-19病毒,但实际上是2002年发现的一种病毒。但这与我们今天看到的病毒非常相关,并且也与该病毒结合受体ACE2。它确实表明发现锌可以阻止RNA合成的起始步骤。他们发现,对于SARS-cov,RDRP延长(即RNdR聚合酶延长)被抑制,模板结合减少。

When they went ahead and bound the zinc with EDTA, which is a binding substrate, they notice that this inhibitory effect was reversed. In other words, showing conclusively that it was the zinc that was slowing it down.

当他们继续进行,并用作为结合底物的EDTA结合锌时,他们注意到这种抑制作用被逆转了。换句话说,结论性地表明是锌在减慢其速度。

Here are the author summary reinforces what we just learned about the coronavirus. They say that positive-stranded RNAs, which is exactly what the coronavirus is, include many important pathogens. They have evolved a variety of replication strategies, but are unified in the fact that an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, that’s the thing that we showed, functions as the core enzyme of their RNA synthesizing machinery. Nothing else can work unless you have this RDRP working to make more RNA molecules.

这是作者的总结,巩固了我们刚刚从冠状病毒中学到的知识。他们说正链RNA正好是冠状病毒,它包含许多重要的病原体。他们进化了各种各样的复制策略,但是由于我们证明了RNA依赖的RNA聚合酶作为其RNA合成机制的核心酶而起作用,因此它们是统一的。除非您使用此RDRP来制造更多RNA分子,否则其他任何方法都将无效。

They show you that this is a crucial function and their key targets for antiviral research. Increased intracellular Zinc concentrations are known to effectively impaired replication of a number of RNA viruses by interfering with the correct proteolytic processing of viral polyproteins.

他们向您展示了这是一项至关重要的功能,也是抗病毒研究的关键目标。已知增加的细胞内锌浓度会通过干扰病毒多蛋白的正确蛋白水解过程来有效削弱许多RNA病毒的复制。

Here, we not only show that corona and arterial virus replication can be inhibited by increasing levels, but also demonstrate that this effect may be based on direct inhibition of RDRPs. Here’s a really telling figure here. We have an increasing concentration here on the x-axis, and here we’re looking at RNA 1, which is the product of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase.

在这里,我们不仅表明可以通过提高水平来抑制日冕和动脉病毒复制,而且还证明了这种效果可能是基于对RDRP的直接抑制。这是一个非常有说服力的人物。我们在x轴上的浓度不断增加,在这里我们看的是RNA 1,它是RNA依赖性RNA聚合酶的产物。

We can see here that when there’s a zero concentration of zinc, the virus can basically do what it wants. But as we start to increase the concentration of zinc, you can see that that quickly diminishes, and the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase can no longer do what it wants to do.

我们可以在这里看到,当锌的浓度为零时,该病毒基本上可以完成其想要的工作。但是,随着我们开始增加锌的浓度,您会发现锌的浓度迅速降低,并且RNA依赖性RNA聚合酶不再能做它想做的事情。

So in summary, what they found was that the combination of zinc ions and then a way to get those zinc ions into the cell with zinc-ionophore PT effectively inhibits nidovirus replication and cell culture. This may be a novel solution for inhibiting the RdRPs of SARS-COV in the future.

因此,总而言之,他们发现锌离子的结合以及通过锌离子载体PT将那些锌离子带入细胞的方法有效抑制了病毒的复制和细胞培养。这可能是将来抑制SARS-COV的RdRP的新颖解决方案。

Of course, the issue is how do you get the zinc into the cells? This is a really far cry to say that just zinc lozenges is going to protect you from having coronavirus because as we know there are no randomized trials looking at zinc in coronavirus, especially the current one, because there are no randomized trials involved with this coronavirus at all.

当然,问题是如何将锌带入细胞?说锌锭剂可以保护您免于冠状病毒的感染,这真是一个非常遥远的说法,因为众所周知,目前尚无针对冠状病毒中锌的随机试验,尤其是当前的研究,因为尚无与该冠状病毒有关的随机试验完全没有

So can we say that taking zinc supplements is going to help you with coronavirus? No, we can’t say that. We can’t say what the appropriate doses. We can’t even say that taking oral zinc is going to increase your intracellular concentration of zinc, but we can say that if you’re deficient in zinc, then you’re probably going to be deficient intracellularly.

那么我们可以说服用锌补充剂会帮助您治疗冠状病毒吗?不,我们不能这么说。我们不能说适当的剂量。我们甚至不能说口服锌会增加您细胞内锌的浓度,但是我们可以说,如果您缺乏锌,那么您可能会在细胞内缺乏。

So it behooves you to make sure that you’re not deficient in zinc. It really opens up more questions that should be answered by more studies. The nice thing about zinc, of course, is that it’s a water-soluble compound, and it’s going to be difficult to overdose on zinc unlike your fat-soluble vitamins like vitamin A, D, etc.

因此,您有必要确保自己不缺锌。它确实提出了更多的问题,需要更多的研究来回答。锌的好处当然是它是一种水溶性化合物,与您的脂溶性维生素(如维生素A,D等)不同,锌的过量服用将非常困难。

So getting back to the life cycle of the coronavirus.  The other thing that is an area of potential attack would be this ACE2 receptor, which we will cover in later updates. Thank you for joining us.

回到冠状病毒的生命周期。潜在攻击领域的另一件事就是该ACE2受体,我们将在以后的更新中介绍。感谢您加入我们。

MedCramChina

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