Update 78: Mask Controversy; Vaccine Update for COVID-19
本文由 ‘中国推动’ 学者、吉林大学医学院毛宗韬同学翻译、编辑。
Welcome to another medcram COVID-19 update! Really quickly looking at the United States daily new cases seem to continue to slowly head down. And also, this is mirrored and the daily Deaths United States as a whole. However, in some states like California, we’ve seen some of our highest cases on a daily basis just recently. Daily deaths also really haven’t come down much either.
欢迎来到medcram 新冠肺炎最新进展！ 快速浏览一下，美国每日新增确诊病例似乎仍继续缓慢下降。另外这是反映美国每日新增死亡病例。 但是在像加利福尼亚这样的某些州，我们最近每天都在看到一些近期来讲数量最高的日增病例，每天的死亡人数也确实没有下降太多。
New York is still the state with the most amount of infections. However, their daily new cases have really come down. And that is also married in the daily deaths in New York state. However, in some states like Texas again, we haven’t seen really much of a decrease. Looking around the world, Brazil has really taken off in terms of daily new cases. And that’s a situation that will be looking at. And of course, Brazil has the deaths to go along with that. Fortunately, we’re seeing in Russia kind of a leveling off of the surge that they had in the last few weeks.
纽约仍然是感染最多的州。 但是他们的每日新增确诊病例确实下降了， 而且在纽约州的每日新增死亡病例中也是如此。 但是，在像德克萨斯州这样的一些州，我们并没有看到太大的新增病例减少。 放眼世界，巴西每日新增确诊病例数量都在上升，这是我们需要关注的情况。当然，巴西也有与之伴随的每日新增死亡病例。 幸运的是，我们在俄罗斯看到的是他们过去几周的激增势头趋于平稳。
And because deaths are usually lagging behind, we may be starting to see a decrease in that too. Of course, India being a very large country of about 1.3 billion is also starting to see an increase in Daily new cases now almost approaching 10,000 cases a day. And they also have the daily death rate to go with that as well. So, things to keep an eye on. Of course, we’re keeping an eye on Australia because they are headed into winter. So far so good.
There’s been some recent discussion about face masks or face coverings, cloth face coverings and whether or not it should be mandatory to wear it or not. And you may recall early on in February the Surgeon General was telling us not to get face mask. I think at this point the major organizations like the CDC and the WHO have sort of landed in their respective areas in terms of their recommendation on wearing face masks.
So you can see here, the CDC has definitely come down on the side of the use of cloth face coverings. They say here your cloth face covering may protect them and their cloth face covering may protect you. And we will put a link to this article in the description below. And basically, what they’re saying here is that the virus can spread a symptomatically when people are just talking with each other and so they say because of this evidence the CDC is recommending wearing face coverings in public settings where you might meet in grocery stores and pharmacies, etc. Etc.
Now this is a little bit different than what is going on over at the WHO. And here’s the link for that. You can see World Health Organization. And you can see here, it says if you are healthy, you only need to wear a mask if you’re taking care of a person with COVID-19. You can wear a mask if you’re coughing or sneezing etc.
现在，这与世界卫生组织正在推荐使用的情形有些不同，这是该链接。 您可以看到世界卫生组织。 您会在这里看到，它说，如果您健康，则只有在照顾新冠肺炎患者时才需要戴口罩。 如果您咳嗽或打喷嚏等，可以戴口罩。
So why is there a difference between these two recommendations? And it may have to do with the fact that the WHO is also in effect for people in countries who can’t afford universal face masks. And if everyone started to go out and get the face masks, then they may not have enough for the health care providers who are taking care of patients with COVID-19.
Now I want to show you some interesting research that was published in the New England Journal of Medicine, Visualizing Speech-Generated Oral Fluid Droplets with Laser Light Scattering. And I want to show you what the differences between wearing a mask and not wearing a mask in terms of the droplets that you see with laser light scattering. Let’s take a look at a video.
So here it is without a mask.
-Now I’m recording.
-Great, less loud.
-Are you recording?
-Yeah, stay healthy.
So you can see perhaps why the CDC is recommending when you’re in the store, going out in the public, you may want to continue to wear a face mask.
The next thing I want to talk about is this website. Now, we’ve used a number of websites in our regular COVID-19 updates, like the Johns Hopkins in the worldometer. I think as we go forward, this is going to be a regular one that we do look at. Because it’s talking about something that we’re looking forward to and that is a vaccine.
So this is put on by RAPS.org and RAPS stands for Regulatory Affairs professional society. And what this is a COVID-19 vaccine tracker. So this is a really nice way of looking. I basically just showed 50 entries and I clicked trial phase. And you can see here, they’ve got the candidate name, the sponsor, what trial phase that they’re in, the name of the institution and the amount of funding that’s going, and you can search this currently. There’s about 28 of these on here. So they’re not all here.
But you can see we’ll talk about Moderna. I will come back to them about what phase are in Phase One. There you can see. But here’s an mRNA lipid nanoparticle. Here’s a COVID-19 S-trimer with various adjuvant candidates. Here’s another mRNA. This is the one that we know we’ve talked about before Moderna. So Phase one is looking at safety, Phase two is looking at ramping it up in terms of size and safety, and Phase 3 of course is the randomized control trial right before FDA approval, some of these are preclinical as you can see.
So when you get to one that you want to know more about like the Moderna one you can just click on this and it’ll expand. They’ll tell you all about the background. There’s even links to outcome Phase one data in this case. And so there will be updating this website every week or so. So here’s the relevant information for the Moderna mRNA, the one we’ve been looking at here. But we can look at a number of these, it always goes back to the default which is showing 10 entries. So if you just click 50 and click phase trial will be able to see which ones you want to see.
This one here, which is in Phase 2 / 3 is the BCG ones. Take a look at that one. And this was done to prevent tuberculosis, of course. And we talked about this in previous medcram updates where there may be some added effects against the coronavirus with these BCG vaccines. And we showed that that paper that was published from a university in Texas. It was a non–peer reviewed paper posted in March on the preprint server medRxiv suggested that countries with BCG vaccination programs at childhood are faring better in the fight against COVID-19 compared to countries that didn’t. And if we click on faring better, we come to that paper that we talked about before. And you can see it.
这个是在二期/三期的BCG。看看那个。当然，这是为了预防肺结核。我们在以前的medcram更新中谈到了这一点，其中使用这些BCG疫苗可能会对冠状病毒产生更多的影响。我们展示了该论文是从德克萨斯州的一所大学发表的。 这是3月份在预印本服务器medRxiv上发表的未经同行评审的论文，该论文建议，在与COVID-19的斗争中，有儿童接种BCG疫苗计划的国家与未计划接种的国家相比，情况要好得多。如果我们点击情况更好， 我们来看看之前讨论过的那篇论文。 您可以看到它。
So I think this is a really nice Clearinghouse for the vaccines that are currently underway. And if you want to research those, this is a really nice resource. I also wanted to let you know that Sunday night. We did our very first live stream on the medcram YouTube channel and we’ll be planning on doing this on a weekly basis generally Sunday nights. We’ll see how things go. But yeah, we were getting questions from the audience and it was a very nice active session and we look forward to doing that more often. Thanks for joining us.