Coronavirus Outbreak, Transmission, & Pathophysiology

冠状病毒的爆发,传播与病理生理学 

Welcome to another MedCram lecture! One of the things that’s in the news and hopefully goes away real soon is the Coronavirus epidemic from 2019. Now as it turns out it started on the last day of 2019 and has been with us in 2020. 

欢迎再次参加MedCram讲座!新闻中的一件事情,希望很快能真正消失,那就是2019年的冠状病毒流行。现在事实证明,它始于2019年的最后一天,并于2020年出现。

Let’s talk a little bit about coronavirus. So it seems as though this virus came from Wuhan, China. They’ve seemed to have pinpointed this to an animal Market. In fact, a number of the people that were hospitalized, and we’ll talk about that article in the Lancet, came from this animal market, and as of January 25, 2020, they estimate about 1300 people have been infected and about 41 people to date as of January 25th have died.

让我们谈谈冠状病毒。因此,似乎该病毒来自….。他们似乎已将其定位到动物市场。实际上,许多住院患者(我们将在《柳叶刀》上谈论该文章)都来自这个动物市场,截至2020年1月25日,他们估计已感染1300人,约41人截至1月25日为止已经死亡。

 And of course this number is expected to go up. Where is it spread to? Well, other than China and Asia, this has spread already to Australia, France and the United States, specifically two cases, one in Chicago, a woman in Chicago and a man in Washington State. And we’ll talk more about that. We expect that to go up. But what really is going on with a Coronavirus? And why is this one so different?

当然,这个数字有望增加。它传播到哪里?嗯,除了中国和亚洲以外,这种情况已经蔓延到澳大利亚,法国和美国,特别是两个案例,一个在芝加哥,一个在芝加哥的女人,一个在华盛顿州的男人。我们将进一步讨论。我们希望这一数字会上升。但是,冠状病毒到底是怎么回事?为什么这一次如此不同?

So, we’ve known about coronaviruses for a long time. It’s an RNA virus, so we know that and let’s face it. There are coronaviruses all over the place in humans, and they usually cause the common cold. What’s unusual about this one is that this one seems to have jumped from one that is already in an animal to that being in a human. So there’s tons of coronaviruses that infect animals, but what has seemed to have happened here for the first time as this one has jumped into a human that a human hasn’t seen before.

我们已经很长时间了解冠状病毒了。这是一种RNA病毒,所以我们知道这一点,让我们面对它。人类到处都有冠状病毒,它们通常会引起普通感冒。这个动物的不寻常之处在于,它似乎已经从一种已经存在于动物中跃迁到了于人类。因此,有数以千计的冠状病毒感染动物,但是,这似乎是第一次在这里发生,因为这已经跳入一个人类从未见过的人。

How could that happen? Well, it could be from a mutation. And that’s typically what happens as there’s a mutation in the protein in this virus that allows it to bind to human proteins, and that allows the virus to get inside of the cells of humans. And if it can replicate, then it can spread throughout the human body and then perhaps spread to another human body.

怎么会这样?可能是因为突变。这就是通常发生的情况,因为这种病毒中的蛋白质发生突变,使其能够与人类蛋白质结合,并使病毒进入人类细胞。如果它可以复制,那么它可以传播到整个人体,然后传播到另一个人体。

So what needs to happen? There has to be a mutation, and that mutation is already there in the animal. And then there has to be close contact with that animal either living with that animal or eating that animal to get that mutated virus that normally lives in an animal into the human being. So when that virus then gets into the human being, it’s got to be able to replicate so that there are more viruses. And then it has to be able to spread to another human being and that is what’s going to cause an epidemic.

那么需要发生什么呢?必须有一个突变,并且该突变已经存在于动物体内。然后必须与该动物密切接触,要么与该动物同住,要么食用该动物,以使通常生活在动物体内的变异病毒传播给人类。因此,当这种病毒进入人类时,它必须能够复制,以便有更多的病毒。然后它必须能够传播到另一个人,这将导致流行病。

So, how does that happen? Well, there’s got to be replication as we just said, and they believe that that virus can replicate inside the human. And then how does it spread to another human as opposed to just another animal spreading it to another human? Well, the way that you get an epidemic is with replication occurring inside that person, in that infected person, and then it spreads. How would it spread? Well, it could spread by Airborne. So that’s why you’d want to wear a mask, close contact, so a loved one, (and) contaminated surfaces.

那么,这是怎么发生的呢?好吧,正如我们刚才所说的,必须有复制,他们相信病毒可以在人体内复制。然后,它如何传播到另一个人,而不是仅仅将另一个动物传播到另一个人?好吧,您传染病的方式是在那个人内部,那个被感染的人中进行复制,然后传播。它会如何传播?好吧,它可能会被机载传播。这就是为什么您要戴口罩,紧密接触,亲爱的人,以及(和)被污染的表面。

 So that’s why you have to wash your hands very carefully or rarely fecal contamination. But these are the things that you can attack to prevent the spread of this virus, but we’ve seen this before, and where have we seen this coronavirus type of thing happening before?

这就是为什么您必须非常小心地洗手或很少粪便污染的原因。但是,可以通过攻击这些东西来阻止这种病毒的传播,但是我们以前已经看到过这种情况,而以前在哪里看到过这种冠状病毒类型的事情呢?

Well, you all may remember SARS back in 2002. This was from bats, which is where the virus was infecting a mammal called civets, and then they were being eaten or living close to humans.

好吧,大家可能还记得2002年的SARS。它是从蝙蝠那里传播的,蝙蝠是该病毒感染一种名为“麝猫”的哺乳动物,然后被食用或在人类附近生活。

Fortunately, we haven’t seen any more infection since 2004, but that was a big thing back in 2002. Then MERS, which had to do with the Middle East, have to do with camel viruses that lived in the camel. And if (you) ate the camel or drank the Camel’s milk, you could get this type of infection.

幸运的是,自2004年以来我们再也没有看到过这种病毒的感染,但是那在2002年是一件大事。然后,与中东有关的MERS与生活在骆驼中的骆驼病毒有关。而且,如果(您)吃了骆驼或喝了骆驼的牛奶,您可能会感染这种病毒。

 Now, the new one is humans with this infection called n-CoV, which is what they’re calling it now. So nCoV is the new coronavirus that’s coming out of Wuhan, China, 2019, and that has gone into humans. But the question is who did it come from? What is the host?

现在,新的感染者是被称为n-CoV的人类,这就是他们现在所说的。因此,nCoV是2019年从…出来的新型冠状病毒,已进入人类。但是问题是它为什么会出现?宿主是谁?

So what they did was they sequence this virus. In the Journal of Medical Virology, and we’ll put a link to this article in our description below, so you can see it. What they did was they sequence this RNA, and they compared it to 200 other RNA Coronaviruses that are known to infect animals. And the one they came up with, which was a match that was pretty close, was one in snakes.

因此,他们所做的是对这种病毒进行了测序。在《医学病毒学杂志》中,我们将在下面的描述中添加指向本文的链接,以便您可以看到它。他们所做的是对该RNA进行测序,然后将其与200种已知感染动物的RNA冠状病毒进行了比较。他们想到的那是一场非常接近的比赛,是一条蛇。

And so what their conclusion was, and we don’t know if this is in fact true, but this was their conclusion was that in the Wuhan animal market, there must have been a snake that had a mutated coronavirus, which they’re now calling nCoV, somebody either ate it or was close to it, or somehow got contact with it, and that virus just started to replicate inside of that person, and that person spread it.

所以他们的结论是什么,我们不知道这是否真的成立,但这是他们的结论是,在..动物市场上,一定有一条蛇带有冠状病毒变异,他们现在已经知道称为nCoV的人要么吃掉了它,要么就接近了它,或者以某种方式与其接触,然后该病毒才开始在该人内部复制,然后该人传播了该病毒。

And as we’ll see in the Lancet article, which we will also put a link to in our description below, they found a whole family that had this virus that were hospitalized. And we’ll talk about the symptoms and the mortality and things of that nature here coming up in our second video.

正如我们将在《柳叶刀》文章中看到的那样,我们还将在下面的描述中链接到该文章,他们发现整个家庭都已感染了这种病毒。我们将在第二个视频中讨论症状,死亡率和这种性质的事情。

This is what they think is going on in China with the coronavirus, and this is big news right now because millions and millions of people are quarantined in China as I’m making this video.

他们认为这是在..与冠状病毒一起发生的事情,这现在是个大新闻,因为在我制作此视频时,成千上万的人在..被隔离。

So in our next video, we’ll talk about the symptoms, and what they’re doing for treatment vaccines, and what you can do to prevent you getting this coronavirus. Thanks for joining us!

因此,在我们的下一个视频中,我们将讨论症状,它们在治疗疫苗方面的作用以及如何预防这种冠状病毒。感谢您加入我们!

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