Treatment Updates, Stock Markets, Germany & San Francisco, Pandemic (Lecture 26)

Welcome to another SARS-cov-2, covid-19 updates. We got numbers. We got Germany, San Francisco, stocks, Delta, coronavirus vaccine, treatment in the US, and pandemic (and that is with a question mark).

欢迎使用covid-19的另一个SARS-cov-2更新。我们有数字。我们得到了德国,旧金山,股票,三角洲,冠状病毒疫苗,在美国的治疗以及大流行病(带有问号)。

So let’s get right to the numbers. If we go to the WorldOmeter website, we look at the number of active cases. You can see that 82% of those are mild condition whereas 18% are serious or critical. Remember these are patients that got tested because they had symptoms, and I imagine that there are far more people out there than we know that had coronavirus were asymptomatic and didn’t even know.

因此,让我们直接看一下数字。如果我们访问WorldOmeter网站,则会查看活动案例的数量。您会看到其中82%为轻度疾病,而18%为严重或严重疾病。请记住,这些是因为有症状而接受测试的患者,而且我想那里的人比我们知道冠状病毒无症状甚至不知道的人要多得多。

If we look at the close cases, this is something that we’re following people who have gone through the coronavirus and come out the other side, or have not come out the other side. We’re seeing that about 92% of them have recovered and are discharged in our home, and 8% have died.

如果我们仔细观察一下,这就是我们跟踪那些经历了冠状病毒并从另一侧出来或没有从另一侧出来的人的过程。我们看到其中约92%的人已经康复并出院,还有8%的人死亡。

If we look at the graph of that, we can see here that this has not yet reached the asymptotes according to these numbers. If you believe the death rate is 8.42% and dropping, for those of you who don’t trust the numbers coming out of xx, this is an interesting graph here where we look at the total cases outside of China, and you can see that those are going up, and we’re sort of in the epidemic phase especially in South Korea and in Italy.

如果看一下它的图表,我们可以在这里看到,根据这些数字,这还没有达到渐近线。如果您相信死亡率是8.42%并且正在下降,对于那些不相信xx得出的数据的人来说,这是一张很有趣的图,我们在其中查看了中国以外的总病例,您可以看到这些疾病正在上升,而且我们正处于流行阶段,尤其是在韩国和意大利。

If we look at daily cases excluding mainland China, we’ve got here on the 25th of February the highest number to date. But please remember that those cases that are outside of China are just a sliver of the total cases that are reported by mainland China. Of course, if those numbers in China are far greater than what the reporting, then this sliver is even smaller than it is represented here.

如果我们查看不包括中国大陆在内的日常案件,则是2月25日以来的最高数字。但是请记住,那些在中国境外的案件只是中国大陆报告的全部案件的一小部分。当然,如果中国的数字远大于报告的数字,则该条甚至比此处的数字小。

Again, back on the main page at the bottom below, all of the country-specific data. We have the latest updates throwing one new death in Japan, three new cases in Thailand, and they say that we are entering a full war with covid-19, and one new death in South Korea, a 73-year-old male.

同样,回到下面底部的主页上,所有特定于国家/地区的数据。我们有最新消息,在日本有1名新人死亡,在泰国有3例新病例,他们说我们正在与covid-19进行全面战争,在韩国有73岁的男性又有新人死亡。

If we go back to February 25th, there are 406 new cases and 52 new deaths occurring in China on February 25th as reported by the National Health Commission of China. Also, one new death in South Korea, a female patient who died of acute respiratory failure after being admitted to just two days being in the hospital. 1 new death on the Diamond Princess. This is a person in their 80s; 2 new cases in Italy, 60 new cases in South Korea, which is a sharp decline in new cases compared to yesterday’s 161 new cases. So we’ll have to see how that pans out.

如果我们回到2月25日,根据中国国家卫生委员会的报告,2月25日中国发生了406例新病例和52例新死亡。此外,在韩国有一名新的死亡病例,一名女性患者因住院两天而死于急性呼吸衰竭。钻石公主有1人死亡。这是一个80年代的人;意大利2例新病例,韩国60例新病例,与昨天的161例新病例相比,这是急剧下降。因此,我们将不得不看看结果如何。

On CNBC, they are reporting, as part of their update, that there are new coronavirus cases in Germany. This is a 25-year-old man living in southern German state of baden-württemberg, and he had a return visit from Italy. He had flu-like symptoms, and he’s going to be treated in isolation, and people who have been in contact with them are going to be put in isolation. Also, see here that San Francisco has declared a local emergency, and they have a total caseload of zero, but they are trying to take a proactive action, kind of an interesting thing.

在CNBC上,他们报告说,作为更新的一部分,德国有新的冠状病毒病例。这是一个25岁的男人,住在德国南部巴登-符腾堡州,他从意大利回国。他有类似流感的症状,将被隔离治疗,与之接触的人将被隔离。另外,在这里可以看到旧金山宣布了地方紧急状态,他们的总处理量为零,但是他们正在尝试采取积极行动,这很有趣。

Of course, the big news of the day is somebody at the CDC, which we’ll talk about, said that it’s not a matter of if, but a matter of when covid-19 comes to the United States in full force, and of course that caused the markets to lose up to 800 points. Also, we see here that Delta scraps cancellation fees for Italian flights because of that outbreak.

当然,今天的大新闻是CDC上的某个人,我们将要谈论的是,这不是问题的问题,而是covid-19何时全面进入美国的问题,以及当然导致市场下跌多达800点。此外,我们在这里看到,由于这次疫情,达美航空取消了意大利航班的取消费用。

Big news here is that US Health officials say that human trials on coronavirus vaccine is going to start in six weeks. We talked about this on the last update, and how it is so different than the previous examples of vaccines that we’ve had, and that’s because instead of injecting you with a protein that your immune system makes antibodies against, what they’re going to be doing is injecting you with the instructions, that is the RNA, into your cell so that the antigen-presenting cells that normally present these antigens to your immune system will make the protein on its surface and then present it to your immune system to make the antibodies against it.

这里的大新闻是美国卫生官员说,关于冠状病毒疫苗的人体试验将在六周内开始。我们在最后一次更新中谈到了这一点,它与我们以前的疫苗实例有何不同,这是因为与其给您注射免疫系统产生针对其的抗体的蛋白质,不如说它将要做的就是将指令(即RNA)注入您的细胞中,以便通常将这些抗原呈递给您的免疫系统的抗原呈递细胞将在其表面形成蛋白质,然后将其呈递给您的免疫系统以制作针对它的抗体。

This allows you to make manipulations as the virus apparently mutates. It also cuts down on production time and allows you to get a vaccine out during an epidemic as opposed to after the epidemic has passed, and a lot of people have suffered from this. And it also allows you to scale and reach millions and millions of people with this type of vaccine. We talked about that yesterday, and we got more information about that today.

这使您可以在病毒明显变异时进行操作。它也减少了生产时间,使您可以在流行期间(而不是在流行结束后)取出疫苗,很多人因此而遭受痛苦。而且,它还使您可以使用这种疫苗扩展规模并覆盖成千上万人。昨天我们讨论了这个问题,今天我们得到了更多的信息。

Here’s a really interesting article. This is from Harvard University, and believe it or not, this was published in May of 2015. That’s five years ago that they were looking at this type of technology, and I will leave a link to this website in the description below. It goes through a lot of interesting things, for instance, a lot of questions yesterday regarding how do you get this RNA into the cells? Well, it’s about what RNA does, and I would recommend you watch our molecular biology primer, which will put the link to bone-up if you will on exactly how does the cellular structure work, because that’s going to become really important for you to understand if you want to understand how these vaccines work.

这是一篇非常有趣的文章。该书来自哈佛大学,无论您信不信,该书于2015年5月发布。五年前,他们正在研究这种技术,在下面的说明中,我将保留指向该网站的链接。它经历了许多有趣的事情,例如,昨天关于您如何将这种RNA进入细胞的许多问题。好吧,这是关于RNA的作用,我建议您看一下我们的分子生物学引物,如果您确切地了解细胞结构的工作原理,它将链接到骨骼,因为这对于您来说真的很重要了解您是否想了解这些疫苗的工作原理。

So the talks about that here. It says in the living cell of the organism, DNA is the molecule that contains the genetic information of that organism. It’s composed of a series of four building blocks, which we talked about. That gets copied into a structure called RNA, which carries that information into the rest of the cell. That’s the cytosol or the cytoplasm, and it’s there that this RNA genetic information is translated into proteins.  So you can see here. What happens is you get injected. This is the RNA that they have figured out. It goes into your special type of cells called antigen-presenting cells. These are typically the cells that go around looking for things that shouldn’t be there, eating them up and presenting the antigens, usually proteins, to your immune cells. That’s how a normal vaccine works.

所以在这里谈论。它说在生物体的活细胞中,DNA是包含该生物体遗传信息的分子。它由我们讨论的四个构建基块组成。它被复制到称为RNA的结构中,该结构将该信息携带到细胞的其余部分中。那是细胞质或细胞质,在那里,这种RNA遗传信息被翻译成蛋白质。所以你可以在这里看到。发生的事情是您被注射。这是他们发现的RNA。它进入您称为抗原呈递细胞的特殊类型的细胞。通常,这些细胞会四处寻找不需要的东西,将它们吃光并向免疫细胞呈递抗原(通常是蛋白质)。普通疫苗就是这样工作的。

Well, here these little code instructions will go into the antigen-presenting cell, and the cell itself will make a portion of the viral protein, the portion that they feel is the best to make antibodies against. They will make that protein inside of their own cells and present it, which will stimulate the immune response.

好吧,这里的这些小代码指令将进入抗原呈递细胞,而细胞本身将组成一部分病毒蛋白,他们认为该部分最适合制造抗体。他们将在自己的细胞内制造该蛋白质并将其呈递,从而刺激免疫反应。

An RNA is injected into the body. This RNA encodes the information to produce the antigen, which is a protein from a pathogen that will stimulate the immune system inside the cells. The RNA is used to synthesize the antigen which is exposed to the cell surface. This is the new part here. Then a subset of immune system cells recognize the antigen and trigger an immune response. So it’s quite interesting.

RNA被注射到体内。该RNA编码信息以产生抗原,该抗原是一种来自病原体的蛋白质,会刺激细胞内的免疫系统。 RNA用于合成暴露于细胞表面的抗原。这是这里的新部分。然后免疫系统细胞的一部分识别抗原并触发免疫反应。所以这很有趣。

You can see here that once you have the real pathogen that comes in, you already have the immune system built up, and you can get a rapid response or a strong response. And I will put a couple of other links of some videos below that describe this kind of technology. If you want more information on that, we’re going to talk about that in subsequent lectures.

在这里您可以看到,一旦有了真正的病原体,您就已经建立了免疫系统,您可以得到快速反应或强烈反应。我将在下面介绍这些技术的一些其他视频链接。如果您想了解更多信息,我们将在随后的讲座中进行讨论。

The next thing I want to talk to you about is this Fortune article about the first U.S. trial for a coronavirus treatment that has started. And this is an interesting situation because, of course, the question is if we’re going to do this in the United States, where we got to do it with? And this is not a vaccine. This is the treatment, and it’s using this medication that we’ve talked about before called remdesivir, now remdesivir is an antiviral, but the way it works is it is a nucleotide analog that basically prevents and truncates or stops the ability of RNA to reproduce and make these long RNA strings. And we have talked a little bit more about that mechanism in our course on What is a Coronavirus and How Does it Infect the Cell, and we’re still working on that, but we should be able to have that out shortly.

我想与您讨论的下一件事情是《财富》杂志的这篇文章,它介绍了美国已开始的首例冠状病毒治疗试验。这是一个有趣的情况,因为,当然,问题是我们是否要在美国这样做?这不是疫苗。这是一种治疗方法,它使用的是我们之前所说的remdesivir,现在remdesivir是抗病毒药,但是它的作用方式是它基本上是一种核苷酸类似物,可以阻止和截断或停止RNA的复制能力并制作这些长RNA弦。在“什么是冠状病毒及其如何感染细胞”的课程中,我们讨论了更多有关该机制的内容,我们仍在努力中,但是我们应该很快就能做到这一点。

The NIH confirmed on Tuesday that the first US clinical trial for coronavirus treatment has launched at the University of Nebraska. So this is a gold-standard study where they are going to give patients Placebo or the real thing. And the reason why they’re doing this is because they don’t know if this medication works, but they’re certainly going to try to find out, and they are going to use patients that have already been infected with covid-19 that have come back from the Diamond Princess, or have been quarantined and found to have the coronavirus if they develop symptoms.

美国国立卫生研究院周二证实,内布拉斯加州大学已经启动了美国首个治疗冠状病毒的临床试验。因此,这是一项金标准研究,他们将为患者提供安慰剂或真品。他们之所以这样做,是因为他们不知道这种药物是否有效,但是他们肯定会尝试找出答案,并且他们将使用已经感染了covid-19的患者已经从钻石公主那里回来,或者被隔离并发现如果他们出现症状则患有冠状病毒。

So again, who are these patients? The first U.S. patient to enroll in the trial is, according to the NIH, an American who volunteered for the study. The individual was one of the thousands of people quarantined on the Diamond Princess cruise ship in Japan before being repatriated to the United States.

再说一遍,这些病人是谁?根据美国国立卫生研究院(NIH)的资料,自愿参加这项研究的美国人是第一位参加该试验的患者。在被遣返美国之前,该人是日本钻石公主号游轮上隔离的数千人之一。

Which all brings us back to the last item, and that’s this idea about pandemic. Pan, of course, meaning everywhere; endemic meaning a situation or infection. So the common cold is a pandemic. The flu virus is a pandemic. A pandemic simply describes how broad and far-reaching is this infection.

所有这些使我们回到了最后一项,那就是关于大流行的想法。潘当然无处不在。地方病是指情况或感染。因此,普通感冒是一种大流行病。流感病毒是一种大流行病。大流行只是描述了这种感染有多广泛和深远。

What are the US Health officials say based on this news report? We have Ann Shucht, the principal deputy director of The Center for Disease Control Prevention told reporters at a news briefing, “It’s not so much a question of if this will happen anymore, but rather more question of when this will happen, and how many people in this country will become infected, and how many of those will develop a severe or more complicated disease.

根据此新闻报道,美国卫生官员怎么说?疾病预防控制中心首席副主任安·舒克特(Ann Shucht)在新闻发布会上对记者说:“与其说这种情况是否会发生,还不如说是什么问题,而更多的是何时发生的问题。这个国家的人将被感染,其中有多少人会发展为严重或更复杂的疾病。

Health and Human Services Secretary Alex Azar added, “we can’t hermetically seal off the United States. And so a lot of these people that are being repatriated have these viruses; they’re keeping them in quarantine and we will see how this goes.

卫生与公共服务部长亚历克斯·阿扎尔(Alex Azar)补充说:“我们不能完全封锁美国。因此,许多被遣返的人都携带了这些病毒;他们正在将它们隔离,我们将看看如何进行。

There is a hope of course that we can stave this off, and that somehow if there is increasing temperatures in spring and summer, that perhaps this might depress the growth of the coronavirus. There are some examples where this could be true. We have some data to show that this might be true. We also have data that this might not be true. Right? Because we have places like Singapore and warmer countries where there is still a growth of the coronavirus.

当然,我们有希望能够避免这种情况,并且如果春季和夏季气温升高,这可能会抑制冠状病毒的生长。在某些例子中,这可能是正确的。我们有一些数据表明这可能是正确的。我们也有数据可能不正确。对?因为我们在新加坡和温暖国家等地都有冠状病毒的增长。

So getting back to our agenda, the big story currently is what they’re doing here with the vaccine, with the RNA. And what they’re doing with the treatment with the randomized controlled trial, that’s big news. And then, of course, this pandemic is not going to change what we do in terms of the virus. It’s simply going to change the perception. The perception of the virus can sometimes be more dangerous than the virus itself. It is best to do what you can do on a rational basis to improve your chances of not getting the coronavirus, but if you do, surviving it.

因此,回到我们的议程上,目前的大新闻是他们在使用疫苗和RNA的情况。他们在随机对照试验中的治疗方式是什么,这是个大新闻。然后,当然,这种大流行不会改变我们在病毒方面所做的工作。这只会改变人们的看法。对病毒的感知有时会比病毒本身更加危险。最好在合理的基础上做您可以做的事情,以增加没有感染冠状病毒的机会,但如果这样做,可以存活下来。

MedCramChina

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