Video 1: Acute Kidney Injury: Introduction with BUN and Creatinine and the Nephron

Welcome to another MedCram lecture. We’re going to talk about acute renal failure, and for that we’re going to sort of bring up our Chem 7 again. We talked about this before. You remember you’ll see this a lot. It’s standard. We have sodium. You’ve got potassium. You’ve got chloride. You’ve got the bicarb, and we can talk about the BUN and the creatinine.

欢迎参加另一个MedCram讲座。我们将谈论急性肾衰竭,为此,我们将再次提出Chem 7。我们之前讨论过这一点。您记得您会经常看到这一点。这是标准的。我们有钠。你有钾。你有氯化物。您有碳酸氢盐,我们可以谈谈BUN和肌酐。

So that’s this third column BUN, which should be referred to as the B-U-N; never call it the BUN; it stands for the blood urea nitrogen. Okay, blood urea nitrogen and the Cr is simply creatinine. Okay, so blood urea nitrogen and creatinine. So these things have to do with acute renal failure, but let’s get into a little bit about what they are and where they came from.

这就是第三列BUN,应称为B-U-N;永远不要称其为BUN;它代表血液中的尿素氮。好吧,血液中的尿素氮和Cr只是肌酸酐。好吧,那就是血液中的尿素氮和肌酐。因此,这些事情与急性肾衰竭有关,但让我们对它们的本质和来源有一点了解。

As you know, when you’re talking about energy, you remember something from biochemistry called the Krebs cycle, and it goes around and around and you remember what went into it first? There’s this thing called acetyl CoA. It was basically two carbons. What came out of Krebs cycle? ATP, you had these reducing agents nadh and fadh2. They went into electron transport chain … the electron transport chain, and you got ATP. So basically you need to have two carbon units to get into this Krebs cycle.

如您所知,当您谈论能量时,您会记住生物化学中的一种叫做克雷布斯循环的知识,它不断地在绕来绕去,并且您还记得首先进入其中的是什么?有一种叫做乙酰CoA的东西。基本上是两个碳。克雷布斯周期产生了什么? ATP,您有这些还原剂nadh和fadh2。他们进入了电子传输链……电子传输链,就得到了ATP。因此,基本上,您需要有两个碳单位才能进入此克雷布斯循环。

Well, let’s talk about what are the three different types of energy sources in the body. There are three types. We know that there’s carbs, and carbs are usually six carbon chains, and six carbon chains get broken down into 2 X 3 carbon chains and then remember one of these carbons comes off in the form of CO2 during glycolysis. Then you’ve got a two-carbon chain and boom you’re ready to enter the Krebs cycle.

好吧,让我们谈谈人体中三种不同类型的能源。有三种类型。我们知道有碳水化合物,而碳水化合物通常是六个碳链,六个碳链分解为2 X 3碳链,然后记住其中的一个碳在糖酵解过程中以CO2的形式脱落。然后,您已经有了一条由两条碳组成的链,并且您已经准备好进入克雷布斯循环。

The other one is fats or lipids. Okay, you remember that? It had the carboxylic end on it, and you had a bunch of these carbons that went off. It was 16 carbons then it’s promotu CoA. And then remember beta-oxidation, it chops these things up into two-carbon units; you’re able to enter into Krebs cycle.

另一个是脂肪或脂质。好吧,你还记得吗?它上面有一个羧基末端,而您有一堆这样的碳却掉了。这是16个碳,然后是促销性的CoA。然后记住β-氧化,它将这些东西分解成两个碳原子的单元。您可以进入克雷布斯周期。

Well, the last energy group is proteins. Proteins, if you recall, are a collection or a string of amino acids, which have the backbone of N-C-C, many of another N-C-C. Well, we have proteases that are chopping up these proteins. They’re chopping them up into these NCC units. These are amino acids. How do you get these C-Cs into C-Cs? While you basically chop off this N group, and then boom, you’ve got C-Cs going in, and you can make ATP.

好吧,最后一个能量组是蛋白质。如果您还记得的话,蛋白质就是氨基酸的集合或一串氨基酸,它们具有N-C-C和许多N-C-C的主链。好吧,我们有蛋白酶正在切碎这些蛋白质。他们将它们切碎成这些NCC单元。这些是氨基酸。您如何将这些C-C转换为C-C?当您基本上砍掉这N个小组,然后蓬勃发展时,您就有了C-C,您可以制造ATP。

The problem is that there are these Ns that are left behind. So what are these Ns? These Ns are something called ammonia or NH3. Okay, so we got to get rid of these NH 3 groups. Well these NH 3 groups ammonia as what it’s known as. Ammonia is toxic to the body. It’s toxic to the brain. If you have too much of it, it can cause hepatic encephalopathy. So the body’s got to do something about it, somehow to get rid of it. And that’s why we talked about the BUN. okay. So clear the screen here.

问题在于有这些N被遗忘了。那么这些Ns是什么?这些Ns称为氨或NH3。好的,所以我们必须摆脱这些NH 3基团。这些NH 3将氨称为氨。氨对身体有毒。对大脑有毒。如果摄入过多,可能会引起肝性脑病。因此,人体必须对此采取某种措施,以某种方式摆脱它。这就是我们谈论BUN的原因。好的。因此,请清除此处的屏幕。

We’ve got NH3 which is ammonia and NH3 goes to the liver. Okay, here’s my picture of the liver. So it goes into the liver. And what comes out is something that looks like this C double bond. O wind of NH3 or nh-2 on one side and an nh-2 on the other. This is your react a you re a it’s goes into the blood.

And then you get blood urea nitrogen. So the nitrogen is now compounded this is not as toxic. So this is really nice to have because you can excrete this through the kidney. So again ammonia goes to the liver and then gets made into urea through something called the urea cycle, which we won’t get into and then you get this bu n now be when blood urea nitrogen goes to the kidney.

Okay, there’s my little picture of the kidney and it goes out and that’s how you get rid of be went so we know how that happens that let’s talk a little bit about the UN. Remember a first point is is it’s made in the liver. Okay, and there are a couple of things that have absolutely nothing to do with the kidneys that could increase the amount of be un that you measure in the blood. First of all, let’s talk about Burns. So Burns is a catabolic State. What do what do you think’s going to happen when you have a

Burns are going to cause you to have more protein breakdown as we already know more protein breakdown is going to give you more ammonia. All right, what about steroids again steroids induces a catabolic State a catabolic state is going to give you more breakdown of proteins. That’s going to give you more ammonia livers going to make more urea. What about certain antibiotics tetracycline? Okay. So here is Tetra sigh clean Burns.

Can do it and steroids catabolic state.

Okay, all of these things can do it. Let’s talk about something else. Let’s say you’ve got liver problems now in liver problems or liver failure or cirrhosis. You can get Safa Joel varices esophageal varices is basic situation where blood is trying to get back to the heart through the liver the livers dysfunctional and because of that the blood has to find an alternative route back to the heart and one of those ways is through the esophagus. So these tiny veins which are normally built only to take so much blood becomes.

Engorged and so these veins can burst and high mortality High mortality associated with this so you’ve got bleeding. What is bleeding bleeding into that into the digestive tract? Well, when that happens, you’ve got these red blood cells. Okay red blood cells are full of globin globin is a protein you digest down all this protein. Guess what you’re going to get you’re going to get ammonia. Well, you already have liver failure, so you’re not making

This urea and so what’s going to Skyrocket your ammonia levels going to Skyrocket. That’s why we see in patients with liver failure who have bleeding esophageal bleeding. They get hepatic encephalopathy. And in fact, that’s how you can tell they’re having a paddock encephalopathy. Now, let’s say that they have a GI bleeding and it’s not due to liver failure if their livers working just fine. You won’t see a buildup of ammonia, but in fact the liver will take that ammonia and guess what you’re going to have an increase in you’re gonna have an increase in the be un so you can have an increase in

Your bu n if you have gi bleeding and your liver is working. What are some things that could cause your Bo n to be decrease. So all of these things cause your be un to go up, okay, what are some things that could cause your be un to go down? Well the obvious thing is this your livers not working because if your livers not working you’re not going to make be un and so liver failure. I see this all the time patients come in with liver failure and I’ll look on the chem seven.

And there be when is pretty low, sometimes it’s really even undetectable Okay, so we’ve talked about bu and let’s review that again. It’s synthesized in the liver things that increase it that have nothing to do with the kidney would be fever catabolic State GI bleeding tetracyclines all sorts of things things that decrease it would be liver failure because it can’t make the be un okay with all those things in mind. Let’s talk about what we’re talking about today, which is kidney failure. So I’m going to draw a Nephron.

Is my little stylized nephron? Okay. This is number the kidney Works kind of like you should clean out your closet you take everything out of the closet everything and then you put back just the stuff that you want to keep and everything else gets thrown away. So here’s the Nephron.

And here is the blood supply so you have the afferent arteriole going in and the efferent this is a bunch of capillaries. And what you have is you’ve got flow of fluid into Bowman’s capsule or the glomerulus and things go down and basically everything that you want to keep gets reabsorbed and what get what is left gets dumped out into the toilet.

Okay, but remember stuff that you want to keep gets reabsorbed and most of the stuff that gets reabsorbed gets reabsorbed right here at something we call the proximal convoluted tubule probably 70% of the stuff that gets reabsorbed gets reabsorbed here at the proximal convoluted tubule. So about 70% of stuff here in the proximal convoluted tubule gets reabsorbed. And so really there’s two things that you’ve got to be aware of that affect the serum concentration of things.

In the serum. So if things here are being reabsorbed back into the serum and those two things are is the GFR the glomerular.

filtration

Rate, what is the rate at which stuff is being filtered into Bowman’s capsule. If you’ve got acute renal failure. This is going to be reduced and therefore if less for instance if less be un is being filtered into Bowman’s capsule, you’re going to have an increase in your be un outside that goes for just about anything that’s being filtered. The less filtration rate. The greater that accumulation is going to be in the serum because it’s just not being filtered.

But there’s an extra added thing here with be un and that is that once it gets filtered if this GFR or this glomerular filtration rate is low. It’s going to go a long hair some more slowly and if it goes along here more slowly, it’s more likely to be a reabsorb because be un is specifically reabsorbed here at the proximal convoluted tubule. So there are in fact two reasons why the be un would go up in a low GFR situation number one. It’s because it’s not being filtered.

And at the same rate and the stuff that is being filtered is more likely to be reabsorbed that’s going to become very important later on. Now. This is in contradistinction to something called creatinine will talk about creatinine cracking basically comes from muscle, but specifically creatinine is also filtered here at Bowman’s capsule, but it is not reabsorbed. It just keeps going through and right on out. In fact there are areas.

Is here where creatinine is actually actively secreted?

Okay. So what does that mean? That means that if there is a low glomerular filtration rate that’s a reason why creatinine is going to go up but it’s not going to have the other reason to go up because it’s not being actively reabsorbed. In fact, it’s being secreted and so creatinine only goes up for one reason in a Loggia far State. That’s the major difference there between creatinine and The Bu n let’s talk a little bit about creatinine. What is creatinine?

Okay, creatinine again and the chem 7 is this area down here? And where does it come from? It comes from muscles so muscle breakdown is going to give you creatinine. It’s just a natural byproduct. So the more muscle you have the higher your correct name is going to be normally and the less muscle you have the less you’re creating this going to be and typically you need to see a reduction in your GFR by a least 50% before you see an

In you’re creating. So what are some non renal things that could increase creatinine things that have absolutely nothing to do with the GFR. Well as we talked about remember there are areas here in the nephron specifically where creatinine is secreted. If you could take a inhibitor of that and block it you would block the secretion of creating that would increase your serum concentration of creatinine and there are a couple of drugs that do.

That one of them is called cimetidine.

Tagamet it’s an H2 blocker. And the other one is an antibiotic called trimethoprim.

Okay, so you’ll see an increase in creating for that. What about decreased creatinine? What could cause a decrease in creatinine? We talked about profound muscle-wasting solo muscles. So if you don’t have any muscles that would cause you’re creating to go down and that would be a reason for your crafting to be low. Okay. So to review remember be un is synthesized in the liver. It is both reabsorbed. It is filtered and reabsorbed the

Creatinine is filtered and secreted. It is not reabsorbed. So if there is a Slowdown in filtration The Bu n is going to be increased because of lack of filtration and also because reabsorption the creatinine is only going to be increased because of lack of filtration. Therefore, you’re going to see a larger be un increase then you would create an in in the low Flow State. Alright that does it for part 1 join me for part 2

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